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The term can also be applied to larger groups of organisms, as in "the adaptive radiation of mammals." adaptive strategies: A mode of coping with competition or environmental conditions on an evolutionary time scale.Species adapt when succeeding generations emphasize beneficial characteristics.These all develop through an embryo that is enclosed within a membrane called an amnion.The amnion surrounds the embryo with a watery substance, and is probably an adaptation for breeding on land.Allometric relations can be studied during the growth of a single organism, between different organisms within a species, or between organisms in different species. amino acid: The unit molecular building block of proteins, which are chains of amino acids in a certain sequence.allopatric speciation: Speciation that occurs when two or more populations of a species are geographically isolated from one another sufficiently that they do not interbreed. There are 20 main amino acids in the proteins of living things, and the properties of a protein are determined by its particular amino acid sequence.

Within a population there may be many different alleles of a gene; each has a unique nucleotide sequence.

amino acid sequence: A series of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, usually coded for by DNA.

Exceptions are those coded for by the RNA of certain viruses, such as HIV.

antibiotic resistance: A heritable trait in microorganisms that enables them to survive in the presence of an antibiotic.

aperture: Of a camera, the adjustable opening through which light passes to reach the film.

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